FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION       COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2022

                                  GENDER STUDIES

 

TIME ALLOWED:  THREE HOURS

PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES

PART-I (MCQS)         MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II                                   MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE: (i) Part II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.

(ii)          Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART IIALL questions carry EQUAL marks.

(iii)       All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.

(iv)        Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.

(v)         No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of the Answer Book must be crossed.

(vi)          Extra attempts of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

  FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING/ASSIMILATION I ATTEMPTED /PREPARED SOME OF THE PREVIOUS PAPERS. SHARE THESE SUBSEQUENTLY FOR THE ASPIRANTS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF                                                             INCOMING EXAMINATIONS.

                                                                               PART-II

Gender Studies
Gender Studies

Q No.2.   Discuss in detail the multidisciplinary nature of gender studies.

. Gender studies is a field of study that examines how gender identity and representation shape various aspects of human society and culture. It is multidisciplinary in the sense that it draws on insights and methods from different academic disciplines, such as literature, history, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and media studies. It is also interdisciplinary in the sense that it integrates and synthesizes knowledge and theories from these disciplines to form a new and holistic perspective on gender issues.

Some of the topics that gender studies explore are:

  • The social and cultural constructions of femininity and masculinity, and how they vary across time, space, and context.
  • The intersections of gender with other categories of difference, such as race, ethnicity, class, sexuality, religion, and disability.
  • The power dynamics and inequalities that result from gender norms and expectations, and how they affect individuals and groups in various domains, such as politics, economy, education, health, and family.
  • The representation and expression of gender in various forms of media, art, and literature, and how they influence and reflect public opinion and identity.
  • The history and development of feminist movements and theories, and their contributions and challenges to social change and justice.
  • The diversity and complexity of gender experiences and identities, and the challenges and opportunities they pose for personal and social development.

Gender studies is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that aims to understand and critique the role of gender in human society and culture, and to promote gender equality and diversity. It is a relevant and dynamic field that responds to the changing needs and realities of the contemporary world.

Q No. 3.   Describe any two Western Schools of thought about Feminism in detail.                 (20)

A . Two Western Schools of Thought about Feminism

Feminism is a global political movement and a field of study that aims to understand and challenge the oppression and inequality of women based on their gender. Feminism has many different schools of thought that reflect the diversity and complexity of women’s experiences and perspectives. In this answer, I will describe two Western schools of thought about feminism: radical feminism and socialist feminism. I will explain their main ideas and goals, and provide some examples and evidence to support them.

Radical Feminism

Radical feminism is a school of thought that views patriarchy as the root cause of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the society and culture that sustain it. Patriarchy is a system of male domination and female subordination that operates through various institutions, such as the family, the state, the economy, the religion, and the media.

The Problem of Patriarchy

Radical feminists argue that patriarchy is based on the control and exploitation of women’s bodies, sexuality, and reproduction. They also claim that patriarchy is supported by a binary and hierarchical conception of gender that assigns masculine traits and roles to men and feminine traits and roles to women.

The Solution of Resistance and Empowerment

Radical feminists aim to challenge and dismantle patriarchy by exposing and resisting its various forms of violence and discrimination against women. Some of the issues that radical feminists address are rape, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, pornography, prostitution, and female genital mutilation. They also advocate for women’s autonomy and empowerment, especially concerning their sexuality and reproduction. They promote women’s rights to abortion, contraception, and lesbianism. They also emphasize the importance of women’s solidarity and separatism, which means creating spaces and communities where women can support each other and develop their own culture and identity.

Examples of Radical Feminists

Some examples of radical feminists are Andrea Dworkin, Catharine MacKinnon, Mary Daly, and Adrienne Rich. Dworkin and MacKinnon are known for their critique of pornography as a form of violence and exploitation of women. They also proposed a civil rights ordinance that would allow women to sue the producers and distributors of pornography for damages. Daly and Rich are known for their contribution to feminist theology and literature. They challenged the patriarchal and heteronormative assumptions of Christianity and Western culture and celebrated the diversity and creativity of women.

Socialist Feminism

Socialist feminism is a school of thought that combines Marxist and feminist ideas. Socialist feminists argue that women’s oppression is not only caused by patriarchy but also by capitalism, which is a system of class exploitation and inequality.

The Problem of Capitalism

They claim that capitalism benefits from the unpaid or underpaid labor of women in the domestic sphere and in the informal sector. They also assert that capitalism reinforces the gender division of labor and the gender stereotypes that limit women’s opportunities and choices in the public sphere.

The Solution of Transformation and Solidarity

Socialist feminists aim to challenge and transform both patriarchy and capitalism by linking the struggles of women and workers. They advocate for the socialization of domestic work and childcare, which means sharing the responsibility and the cost of these tasks among the society. They also support the expansion of public services and welfare programs that can improve the living conditions and the well-being of women and their families. They also demand equal pay and equal rights for women in the formal sector, as well as the recognition and protection of the rights of women in the informal sector.

Examples of Socialist Feminists

Some examples of socialist feminists are Clara Zetkin, Alexandra Kollontai, Rosa Luxemburg, and Nancy Fraser. Zetkin and Kollontai were prominent figures in the socialist and communist movements in Germany and Russia. They organized women workers and advocated for their political and economic rights. They also supported the legalization of abortion and divorce, and the liberation of women’s sexuality. Luxemburg was a revolutionary leader and theorist who criticized the reformist and nationalist tendencies of the socialist movement. She also emphasized the importance of democracy and internationalism for the emancipation of women and workers. Fraser is a contemporary philosopher and a social critic who developed the concept of recognition and redistribution as the two dimensions of social justice. She argued that women and other marginalized groups need both the recognition of their differences and the redistribution of resources and power to achieve equality and dignity.

Summary

  • The answer describes two Western schools of thought about feminism: radical feminism and socialist feminism.
  •        Radical feminism focuses on patriarchy as the main source of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the society and culture that sustain it.
  • Socialist feminism focuses on both patriarchy and capitalism as the causes of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the economic and political systems that exploit them.
  • Both schools of thought have contributed to the understanding and advancement of women’s rights and interests in various domains and contexts.

 Q No.4.   Shed light on the first wave and third wave of feminism.  (20)

A . First Wave and Third Wave of Feminism

Feminism is a global political movement and a field of study that aims to understand and challenge the oppression and inequality of women based on their gender. Feminism has many different schools of thought that reflect the diversity and complexity of women’s experiences and perspectives. In this answer, I will describe two historical phases of the feminist movement: the first wave and the third wave of feminism. I will explain their origins, goals, and strategies, and provide some examples and evidence to support them.

The First Wave of Feminism

The first wave of feminism emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in the United States and Europe. It was focused on gaining political and legal rights for women, especially the right to vote.

Origins and Influences

The first wave was inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of liberty, equality, and democracy, and by the social reform movements of the time, such as abolitionism and temperance. The first wave was also influenced by the Industrial Revolution, which brought economic and social changes that affected women’s lives and roles.

Goals and Strategies

The first wave was led by prominent activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Emmeline Pankhurst, and Alice Paul. The first wave achieved its major victory with the ratification of the 19th Amendment in the United States in 1920, which granted women the right to vote. The first wave also campaigned for other rights and reforms, such as education, property, divorce, and labor.

Limitations and Criticisms

However, the first wave also faced limitations and criticisms, such as its exclusion of women of color, its neglect of issues beyond suffrage, and its acceptance of traditional gender roles. The first wave also faced opposition and resistance from conservative and religious groups, as well as from some men and women who feared the social and moral consequences of women’s emancipation.

The Third Wave of Feminism

The third wave of feminism emerged in the 1990s, mainly in the United States and other developed countries. It was influenced by the postmodernist and multiculturalist movements in academia, and by the social and cultural changes brought by globalization, technology, and media. The third wave was characterized by its diversity, inclusivity, and intersectionality, which means recognizing the multiple and overlapping identities and oppressions that women face, such as race, class, sexuality, religion, and disability.

Origins and Influences

The third wave was also influenced by the second wave of feminism, which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, and challenged the patriarchal and sexist structures and norms of society. The third wave was also influenced by the backlash and criticism that the second wave faced, such as being accused of being too radical, too white, too middle-class, and too anti-men.

Goals and Strategies

The third wave was led by young and diverse activists, such as Rebecca Walker, bell hooks, Gloria Anzaldúa, Judith Butler, and Kimberlé Crenshaw. The third wave addressed a wide range of issues, such as violence, reproductive rights, media representation, body image, sexuality, and identity politics. The third wave also challenged and critiqued the binary and hierarchical notions of gender and sexuality, and celebrated and empowered women’s agency, choice, and expression.

Challenges and Criticisms

However, the third wave also faced challenges and criticisms, such as its lack of cohesion, its reliance on personal narratives, its fragmentation into subgroups, and its detachment from political and economic realities. The third wave also faced opposition and resistance from conservative and religious groups, as well as from some feminists who disagreed with its methods and values.

Summary

  • The answer describes two historical phases of the feminist movement: the first wave and the third wave of feminism.
  • The first wave emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and focused on gaining political and legal rights for women, especially the right to vote.
  • The third wave emerged in the 1990s and focused on addressing the diversity and complexity of women’s experiences and perspectives, especially their multiple and overlapping identities and oppressions.
  • Both waves of feminism have contributed to the understanding and advancement of women’s rights and interests but also faced limitations, criticisms, and challenges.

 No.5.   According to your opinion, what are the main issues with women as representatives in Pakistan?                                                                                                                                                                                                         (20)

A . Women as representatives in Pakistan face many challenges and barriers that limit their political participation and influence. In my opinion, some of the main issues are:

  • Cultural and social norms that discourage or prevent women from engaging in public and political activities, especially in rural and conservative areas. Women may face harassment, threats, or violence from their families, communities, or opponents if they pursue political careers or express their opinions.
  • Lack of support and resources from political parties and institutions that favor male candidates and leaders. Women may have less access to funding, training, media, and networks that can help them campaign and perform effectively. Women may also face discrimination and bias within their parties and in the parliament.
  • Low representation and visibility of women in the legislative and executive bodies, despite the constitutional and legal provisions that reserve seats for women. Women hold only 21% of the seats in the national parliament and 17% in the provincial legislatures1. Women are also underrepresented in the cabinet, the committees, and the decision-making positions.
  • Limited influence and impact of women on the policy-making and agenda-setting processes, due to their marginalization and exclusion from mainstream politics. Women may have less voice and power to advocate for their interests and concerns, especially on the issues that affect them disproportionately, such as violence, health, education, and economic empowerment.

These issues need to be addressed by the government, the political parties, the civil society, and the media, to ensure that women as representatives in Pakistan can exercise their rights and fulfill their potential as equal and active citizens.

Some examples of women who have overcome the issues of political participation and influence in Pakistan are:

  • Malala Yousafzai, is a Nobel Peace Prize laureate and an activist for girls’ education and women’s rights. She survived a Taliban assassination attempt in 2012 and became a global symbol of courage and resilience. She also founded the Malala Fund, a non-profit organization that supports girls’ education around the world12.
  • Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy, is a two-time Academy Award-winning filmmaker and a human rights advocate. She has produced and directed documentaries that expose the injustices and violence faced by women and minorities in Pakistan, such as honor killings, acid attacks, and child marriages. She also co-founded the Citizens Archive of Pakistan, a non-profit organization that preserves and promotes the cultural and historical heritage of Pakistan34.
  • Asma Jahangir, a late lawyer and a human rights activist who fought for the rights of women, minorities, and the oppressed in Pakistan. She co-founded the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, the Women’s Action Forum, and the AGHS Legal Aid Cell. She also served as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran and on freedom of religion or belief. She was awarded several international honors, such as the Martin Ennals Award, the Ramon Magsaysay Award, and the Nishan-e-Imtiaz.
  • Nighat Dad, is a lawyer and a digital rights activist who works to protect the online freedom and privacy of women and marginalized groups in Pakistan. She founded the Digital Rights Foundation, a non-profit organization that provides legal aid, policy advocacy, and awareness campaigns on digital rights issues. She also established Pakistan’s first cyber harassment helpline and received the Human Rights Tulip Award from the Netherlands.
  1. No.7.   What are Capitalistic Perspectives of Gender? Explain.                       (20)

A . Capitalistic perspectives of gender are ways of understanding and analyzing how gender relations are shaped and influenced by the economic system of capitalism, which is based on private ownership, profit, and competition. Capitalism affects gender in various ways, such as creating and reinforcing gender inequalities, exploiting and commodifying women’s labor and bodies, and producing and consuming gendered products and services. In this answer, I will explain some of the main aspects and examples of capitalistic perspectives of gender, using headings and subheadings, and provide a summary in bullets at the end.

Gender Inequalities under Capitalism

One of the aspects of capitalistic perspectives of gender is the recognition and critique of the gender inequalities that exist and persist under capitalism. Capitalism creates and reinforces a gender division of labor, which assigns different and unequal roles and tasks to men and women in the production and reproduction of society. For example, men are typically expected and encouraged to participate in the formal and paid sector of the economy, while women are typically expected and confined to the informal and unpaid sector of domestic and care work. This division of labor not only devalues and marginalizes women’s work, but also limits their access to and control over resources, such as income, property, education, and health. Moreover, capitalism exacerbates gender inequalities by exploiting and discriminating against women workers in the formal sector, who often face lower wages, fewer benefits, less security, and more harassment than men workers. Capitalism also creates and maintains a patriarchal and hierarchical structure of power and authority, which privileges and benefits men over women in the political, legal, and cultural spheres of society.

Gender Exploitation and Commodification under Capitalism

Another aspect of capitalistic perspectives of gender is the analysis and resistance of the gender exploitation and commodification that occur and increase under capitalism. Capitalism exploits and commodifies women’s labor and bodies, which means using and selling them as sources of profit and consumption. For example, capitalism relies on the unpaid or underpaid labor of women in domestic and care work, which subsidizes and supports the formal and paid sector of the economy. Capitalism also exploits and commodifies women’s labor and bodies in the global market, which involves the outsourcing and trafficking of women workers, especially from the Global South, to the Global North, where they are employed in low-skilled, low-paid, and high-risk sectors, such as domestic service, garment industry, sex work, and surrogacy. Furthermore, capitalism exploits and commodifies women’s labor and bodies in the media and culture, which involves the production and consumption of gendered images, representations, and stereotypes, that objectify and sexualize women, and that promote and normalize consumerism, individualism, and patriarchy.

Gendered Products and Services under Capitalism

A third aspect of capitalistic perspectives of gender is the examination and critique of the gendered products and services that are produced and consumed under capitalism. Capitalism produces and consumes products and services that are designed and marketed for specific and different gender groups, which reflect and reinforce the gender norms and expectations of society. For example, capitalism produces and consumes products and services that are associated with femininity and masculinity, such as clothing, cosmetics, toys, sports, and entertainment. These products and services not only create and maintain a binary and hierarchical conception of gender but also shape and influence the identities and behaviors of men and women. Moreover, capitalism produces and consumes products and services that are targeted and tailored for specific and different gender needs and preferences, such as health, education, and finance. These products and services not only respond and cater to the existing and emerging gender demands and opportunities but also generate and stimulate new gender markets and niches.

Summary

  • Capitalistic perspectives of gender are ways of understanding and analyzing how gender relations are shaped and influenced by the economic system of capitalism, which is based on private ownership, profit, and competition.
  • Capitalism affects gender in various ways, such as creating and reinforcing gender inequalities, exploiting and commodifying women’s labor and bodies, and producing and consuming gendered products and services.
  • Capitalistic perspectives of gender offer insights and critiques of the gender issues and challenges that exist and persist under capitalism, and also suggest alternatives and solutions that can promote gender equality and justice.

 No.8.   Discuss in detail Gender Critiqued of Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs).  (20)

A . Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) are economic reforms that are imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank on developing countries as a condition for receiving loans and debt relief. SAPs usually involve measures such as currency devaluation, fiscal austerity, trade liberalization, privatization, and deregulation. SAPs are intended to promote economic growth, stability, and integration in the global market, but they have also been criticized for their negative social and environmental impacts, especially on the poor and vulnerable groups.

Gender critique of SAPs is a perspective that examines and challenges how SAPs affect women and men differently, and how they reproduce and reinforce gender inequalities and injustices. Gender critique of SAPs argues that SAPs are not gender-neutral or gender-sensitive, but rather gender-blind and gender-biased. Gender critique of SAPs highlights the following issues:

  • SAPs ignore the different roles and responsibilities of women and men in the economy and society, and the different needs and interests they have. SAPs assume that women and men are equally affected by economic changes and that they have equal access to and control over resources and opportunities. However, this is not the case, as women and men have different positions and power relations in the production and reproduction of society, and face different constraints and opportunities in the market and the household.
  • SAPs worsen the economic and social conditions of women, especially the poor and marginalized women, and increase their burden and vulnerability. SAPs reduce the public spending and subsidies on social services and welfare programs, such as health, education, food, and water, which affect women more than men, as women are more dependent on these services for themselves and their families, and have less income and assets to afford them. SAPs also increase the prices of basic goods and services and reduce the wages and employment opportunities, which affect women more than men, as women have less bargaining power and mobility in the labor market, and have more responsibilities and expenses in the household. SAPs also expose women to more risks and violence, such as sexual exploitation, trafficking, and domestic abuse, as they try to cope with economic hardships and social pressures.
  • SAPs undermine the political and cultural rights and participation of women, and reinforce the patriarchal and sexist norms and values of society. SAPs reduce the space and voice of women in the decision-making and policy-making processes and exclude them from the benefits and opportunities of economic reforms. SAPs also reinforce the stereotypes and expectations of women as subordinate and dependent on men and as caregivers and homemakers, rather than as productive and autonomous agents of change. SAPs also erode the diversity and identity of women and impose a Western and neoliberal model of development and gender relations, that does not respect the local and cultural contexts and realities of women.

Gender critique of SAPs calls for a more gender-responsive and gender-transformative approach to economic development and policy-making, that recognizes and addresses the different and unequal impacts of SAPs on women and men, and that promotes and protects the rights and interests of women, especially the poor and marginalized women. Gender critique of SAPs also advocates for a more democratic and participatory process of economic governance and reform that involves and empowers women as equal and active partners and stakeholders, and that respects and values the diversity and identity of women.

Summary

  • Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) are economic reforms that are imposed by the IMF and the World Bank on developing countries as a condition for receiving loans and debt relief.
  • Gender critique of SAPs is a perspective that examines and challenges how SAPs affect women and men differently, and how they reproduce and reinforce gender inequalities and injustices.
  • Gender critique of SAPs highlights the following issues:
  • SAPs ignore the different roles and responsibilities of women and men in the economy and society and the different needs and interests they have.
  • SAPs worsen the economic and social conditions of women, especially the poor and marginalized women, and increase their burden and vulnerability.
  • SAPs undermine the political and cultural rights and participation of women, and reinforce the patriarchal and sexist norms and values of society.
  • Gender critique of SAPs calls for a more gender-responsive and gender-transformative approach to economic development and policy-making, that recognizes and addresses the different and unequal impacts of SAPs on women and men, and that promotes and protects the rights and interests of women, especially the poor and marginalized women.

Sample essay:

Feminism is a global political movement and a field of study that aims to understand and challenge the oppression and inequality of women based on their gender. Feminism has many different schools of thought that reflect the diversity and complexity of women’s experiences and perspectives. In this essay, I will describe two Western schools of thought about feminism: radical feminism and socialist feminism. I will explain their main ideas and goals, and provide some examples and evidence to support them.

Radical feminism is a school of thought that views patriarchy as the root cause of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the society and culture that sustain it. Patriarchy is a system of male domination and female subordination that operates through various institutions, such as the family, the state, the economy, the religion, and the media. Radical feminists argue that patriarchy is based on the control and exploitation of women’s bodies, sexuality, and reproduction. They also claim that patriarchy is supported by a binary and hierarchical conception of gender that assigns masculine traits and roles to men and feminine traits and roles to women.

Radical feminists aim to challenge and dismantle patriarchy by exposing and resisting its various forms of violence and discrimination against women. Some of the issues that radical feminists address are rape, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, pornography, prostitution, and female genital mutilation. They also advocate for women’s autonomy and empowerment, especially with their sexuality and reproduction. They promote women’s rights to abortion, contraception, and lesbianism. They also emphasize the importance of women’s solidarity and separatism, which means creating spaces and communities where women can support each other and develop their own culture and identity.

Some examples of radical feminists are Andrea Dworkin, Catharine MacKinnon, Mary Daly, and Adrienne Rich. Dworkin and MacKinnon are known for their critique of pornography as a form of violence and exploitation of women. They also proposed a civil rights ordinance that would allow women to sue the producers and distributors of pornography for damages. Daly and Rich are known for their contribution to feminist theology and literature. They challenged the patriarchal and heteronormative assumptions of Christianity and Western culture and celebrated the diversity and creativity of women.

Socialist feminism is a school of thought that combines Marxist and feminist ideas. Socialist feminists argue that women’s oppression is not only caused by patriarchy but also by capitalism, which is a system of class exploitation and inequality. They claim that capitalism benefits from the unpaid or underpaid labor of women in the domestic sphere and in the informal sector. They also assert that capitalism reinforces the gender division of labor and the gender stereotypes that limit women’s opportunities and choices in the public sphere.

Socialist feminists aim to challenge and transform both patriarchy and capitalism by linking the struggles of women and workers. They advocate for the socialization of domestic work and childcare, which means sharing the responsibility and the cost of these tasks among the society. They also support the expansion of public services and welfare programs that can improve the living conditions and the well-being of women and their families. They also demand equal pay and equal rights for women in the formal sector, as well as the recognition and protection of the rights of women in the informal sector.

Some examples of socialist feminists are Clara Zetkin, Alexandra Kollontai, Rosa Luxemburg, and Nancy Fraser. Zetkin and Kollontai were prominent figures in the socialist and communist movements in Germany and Russia. They organized women workers and advocated for their political and economic rights. They also supported the legalization of abortion and divorce, and the liberation of women’s sexuality. Luxemburg was a revolutionary leader and theorist who criticized the reformist and nationalist tendencies of the socialist movement. She also emphasized the importance of democracy and internationalism for the emancipation of women and workers. Fraser is a contemporary philosopher and a social critic who developed the concept of recognition and redistribution as the two dimensions of social justice. She argued that women and other marginalized groups need both the recognition of their differences and the redistribution of resources and power to achieve equality and dignity.

In conclusion, radical feminism and socialist feminism are two Western schools of thought about feminism that have different perspectives and goals. Radical feminism focuses on patriarchy as the main source of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the society and culture that sustain it. Socialist feminism focuses on both patriarchy and capitalism as the causes of women’s oppression and seeks to transform the economic and political systems that exploit them. Both schools of thought have contributed to the understanding and advancement of women’s rights and interests in various domains and contexts.

Summary:

  • The essay describes two Western schools of thought about feminism: radical feminism and socialist feminism.
  • The essay has four main parts: introduction, body paragraph 1, body paragraph 2, and conclusion.
  • The main points of each part are:
    • Introduction: Defines feminism and introduces the two schools of thought.
    • Body paragraph 1: Explains the main ideas and goals of radical feminism, using examples and evidence.
    • Body paragraph 2: Explains the main ideas and goals of socialist feminism, using examples and evidence.
    • Conclusion: Compare and contrast the two schools of thought and restate the main argument of the essay.

By Hamid Mahmood

Hamid Mahmood Veteran | Ex Principal | Author | Blog/Content Creator | Former Security Consultant | Trainer Education: • Master in Political Science ,LLB, PGD (HRM) Beliefs: Humanity, Tolerance, Co-Existence (Live and Let Live), Peace, Harmony. Tranquility, Nature (children, poetry, birds, flowers, plants, and greenery) Experience: • Hamid Mahmood is a veteran with a wealth of experience in various fields. • He has served as an ex-principal, showcasing his leadership and educational expertise. • As an author, he has contributed valuable knowledge and insights to the literary world. • Hamid Mahmood is a dedicated blog and content creator, sharing his thoughts and ideas with a wide audience. • With a background as a former security consultant, he possesses a deep understanding of security-related matters. • Additionally, Hamid Mahmood has worked as a trainer, passing on his knowledge and skills to others. Travels: • He has explored various regions of Pakistan, including the Azad Kashmir Mountains, the deserts of Sind and Punjab, the lush green tops of KP, the rugged hilltops of Baluchistan, and the bustling city of Karachi. • His extensive travels have given him a profound appreciation for the beauty of Pakistan, leading him to believe that it is one of the most stunning places on Earth.

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