ISLAMIC STUDIES



PART-I (MCQS)             MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II                       MAXIMUM MARKS = 80
NOTE: (i)     Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.

(ii)        Attempt FOUR questions from PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL marks.

(iii)       All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.

(iv)        Candidate must write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.

(v)          No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.

(vi)          Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered.


CSS Examination
CSS Examination


Q No. 2. Define Ijtihad, also highlight its contemporary importance in the light of Islamic Fiqh. (20)

A . Ijtihad is the process of deriving the laws of the shari’ah from its sources, namely the Qur’an and the sunnah, using one’s own reasoning and effort1. It is a tool for achieving the moral mission of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), which is to help people become morally committed humans2. Ijtihad is necessary for adapting the shari’ah to the changing circumstances of time and place, and for addressing new issues that arise in human society12. Ijtihad is also an obligation (wajib kifa’i) for a group of Muslims who have the qualifications and expertise to study the religious sciences and provide guidance to the Muslim community1.

Ijtihad and Taqlid are two ways of performing the rites of Islam. Ijtihad means to use one’s reasoning and effort to derive the rules of the shari’ah from its sources, such as the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Taqlid means to follow the rulings of a qualified scholar (Mujtahid) who can perform Ijtihad. A person who performs Ijtihad is called a Mujtahid, and a person who follows a Mujtahid is called a Muqallid12.

In summary, Ijtihad is the independent legal reasoning based on the sources of the shari’ah, while Taqlid is the adherence to the opinions of a Mujtahid. Ijtihad requires a high level of knowledge and expertise, while Taqlid is the responsibility of most people who are not able to perform Ijtihad.

In summary, ijtihad is the independent legal reasoning based on the sources of the shari’ah, which aims to fulfill the moral objectives of fiqh at every time and place. It is an essential and obligatory phenomenon for the survival and development of the Islamic shari’ah.

Q No. 3. What is Self-purification and Ehsan? Explain it in the light of Quran and Sunnah, also describe its individual and collective impacts.

A . Self-purification, or Tazkiyah in Arabic, refers to the process of spiritual purification and the removal of negative traits, habits, and inclinations from oneself. Ehsan, on the other hand, refers to the concept of spiritual excellence, where one worships Allah as if they see Him, and even though they do not see Him, they know that He sees them1.

Both self-purification and Ehsan are emphasized in the Quran and Sunnah as essential aspects of Islamic faith and practice. Allah says in the Quran (what means): “He has succeeded who purifies himself, and he has failed who corrupts himself” [Quran 91:9-10]. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “I have been sent to perfect good manners” [Bukhari]. He also defined Ehsan as: “To worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not see Him, then indeed He sees you” [Bukhari and Muslim].

The individual and collective impacts of self-purification and Ehsan are manifold. On the individual level, they help one to attain inner peace, happiness, and closeness to Allah. They also enable one to overcome the temptations of the lower self, the devil, and the worldly life. They also enhance one’s moral character, wisdom, and knowledge. On the collective level, they foster social harmony, justice, and cooperation among Muslims. They also inspire one to contribute positively to the welfare of humanity and the environment. They also protect one from the evils of oppression, corruption, and violence.

In summary, self-purification and Ehsan are the goals of Islamic teachings and the means of achieving spiritual and moral perfection. They are based on the Quran and Sunnah, and they have profound individual and collective impacts on the believers and society

 Some practical ways to achieve self-purification?

Self-purification is the process of spiritual purification and the removal of negative traits, habits, and inclinations from oneself. Some practical ways to achieve self-purification are:

In summary, self-purification is a lifelong journey that requires constant effort, awareness, and guidance. By applying these practical ways, you can enhance your spiritual and moral well-being and attain closeness to Allah.

Q No. 4. Point out the motives of terrorism in Pakistan. How can the society

get rid of terrorism?

 A . Terrorism in Pakistan is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that has various motives and causes. Some of the major motives of terrorism in Pakistan are:

Society can get rid of terrorism by adopting a comprehensive and holistic approach that addresses the root causes and drivers of terrorism, as well as its manifestations and consequences. Some of the possible solutions are:

In summary, terrorism in Pakistan has various motives and causes that require a comprehensive and holistic approach to address them. Society can get rid of terrorism by adopting legal, security, political, social, economic, and educational solutions that target the root causes and drivers of terrorism, as well as its manifestations and consequences.

Q No. 5. Highlight the responsibilities of civil servants in the light of Islamic teachings. (20)

A . Civil servants are the officials who perform their duties as the representatives of the state. They have a dual responsibility: to Allah Almighty and to the people. According to the Islamic teachings, civil servants have the following major responsibilities:

In summary, civil servants have various responsibilities that are derived from Islamic teachings. They should be honest, fair, accountable, competent, efficient, and respectful in their dealings. They should also serve the public interest and welfare, and uphold Islamic values and principles. By doing so, they can fulfill their trust and duty to Allah Almighty and the people.

Q No. 6. Write a comprehensive note on the Zakat system of Islam and its spiritual, moral and social impacts.                                                                                                                                                      (20)

A . Zakat is the obligatory charity that every eligible Muslim must pay annually to the poor and needy. It is one of the five pillars of Islam and a means of purifying one’s wealth and soul. Zakat has many spiritual, moral and social impacts on the individual and the society12.

In summary, zakat is a comprehensive system of Islamic charity that has various spiritual, moral, and social impacts on the individual and the society. Zakat is a means of attaining Allah’s pleasure and blessings and a way of fulfilling the rights of the poor and needy. Zakat is also a source of purification and growth for the wealth and soul of the Muslims and a factor of development and progress for the Muslim community.

 Q No. 7. Describe, in detail, the basic characteristics of Islamic civilization. (20)

A . Islamic civilization is the product of the Islamic faith and its teachings, as well as the historical and cultural achievements of the Muslim people. Islamic civilization has some distinctive features that set it apart from other civilizations, such as:

In summary, Islamic civilization is characterized by the Islamic faith and its teachings, which shape the worldview, values, and culture of the Muslim people. Islamic civilization is distinguished by its features of tawheed, self-purification, dignity of man, equality, social justice, moral values, tolerance, and the rule of law. These features reflect the Islamic vision of a just, peaceful, and prosperous society.

Q No. 8. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) is the prophet of peace and safety. Explain with arguments. (20)

A. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is indeed the prophet of peace and safety, as he demonstrated through his message, teachings, and actions. Some of the arguments to support this claim are:

In summary, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is rightly regarded as the prophet of peace and safety. His message, teachings, and actions all emphasized the importance of promoting peace, compassion, and social justice, and he worked tirelessly toward establishing a just and peaceful society.

Some examples of the Prophet’s peaceful actions? (Although not part of the question, but certainly can be added some of the points for elaborating the quality)

Some examples of the Prophet’s peaceful actions are:











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