FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION – 2021

                                               ENGLISH (PRECIS & COMPOSITION)

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS

PART-I(MCQS):         MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES

PART-I (MCQS)     MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II                                 MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE: (i) Part II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.

(ii)       Attempt ALL questions from PART II.

(iii)      All the parts (if any) of each Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.

(iv)      Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.

(v)       No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of the Answer Book must be crossed.

(vi)       Extra attempts of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING/ASSIMILATION I ATTEMPTED /PREPARED SOME OF THE PREVIOUS PAPERS. SHARE THESE SUBSEQUENTLY FOR THE ASPIRANTS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF INCOMING EXAMINATIONS.

                                                                                 PART-II

 

CSS Examination
CSS Examination

Q. 2.

Write a précis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title:

(20)

On the question of freedom in education, there are at present three main schools of thought, deriving partly from differences as to ends and partly from differences in psychological theory. There are those who say that children should be completely free, however bad they may be; there are those who say they should be completely subject to authority, however good they may be, and there are those who say they should be free, but in spite of freedom they should be always good. This last party is larger than it has any logical right to be; children, like adults, will not all be virtuous if they are all free. The belief that liberty will ensure moral perfection is a relic of Rousseauism, and would not survive a study of animals and babies. Those who hold this belief think that education should have no positive purpose, but should merely offer an environment suitable for spontaneous development. I cannot agree with this school, which seems to me too individualistic, and unduly indifferent to the importance of knowledge. We live in communities which require co-operation, and it would be utopian to expect all the necessary co-operation to result from spontaneous impulse. The existence of a large population on a limited area is only possible owing to science and technique; education must, therefore, hand on the necessary minimum of these. The educators who allow most freedom are men whose success depends upon a degree of benevolence, self-control, and trained intelligence which can hardly be generated where every impulse is left unchecked; their merits, therefore, are not likely to be perpetuated if their methods are undiluted. Education, viewed from a social standpoint, must be something more positive than a mere opportunity for growth. It must, of course, provide this, but it must also provide a mental and moral equipment which children cannot acquire entirely for themselves.

A. The Limits of Freedom in Education

The passage discusses three views on the role of freedom in education: complete freedom, complete authority, and freedom with goodness. The author rejects the first view, which assumes that freedom leads to moral perfection and spontaneous development. The author argues that this view is unrealistic, and individualistic, and neglects the importance of knowledge, cooperation, and science. The author also criticizes the second view, which imposes authority on children regardless of their goodness. The author favors the third view, which balances freedom and authority, and provides children with the necessary mental and moral skills for living in a society. The author warns that the educators who advocate for the most freedom may not be able to reproduce their success if their methods are not modified. The author concludes that education should have a positive social purpose, not just a personal one.

Q. 3.

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.

(20)

The majority     of        people         have always lived       simply, and           most of        humanity

still

struggles              on

a

daily basis to eke out a meager existence under dire circumstances. Only in affluent industrialized countries do people have the luxury of more goods and services than they need to survive. On the basis of material wealth, North Americans and Europeans should be the happiest people on earth, but according to the 2012 Happy Planet Index (HPI), they are not. Surprisingly, what had begun as an experimental lifestyle evolved into a quiet revolution that spread the word through books such as Duane Elgin’s best-selling Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life that is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich (1981), as well as numerous magazines, alternative communities of the like-minded, and, later, Internet websites. Combined with a growing awareness of the environmental consequences of consumerism, the voluntary simplicity movement sought to reduce the consumption of goods and energy and to minimize one’s personal impact on the environment. “Voluntary” denotes a free and conscious choice to make appropriate changes that will enrich life in a deeper, spiritual sense. “Simplicity” refers to the lack of clutter, that is, eliminating all those things, patterns, habits, and ideas that take control of our lives and distract us from our inner selves. However, this is not to be confused with poverty, which is involuntary, degrading, and debilitating. Neither does it mean that people must live on a farm or reject progress or technology, or do without what is necessary for their comfort and welfare. To practice voluntary simplicity, one must differentiate between what one wants (psychological desires) and what one needs (basic requirements of life), and seek a healthy balance that is compatible with both. In a consumer society where advertising bombards us with the message that without this, that, and the other product, we are unsuccessful, undesirable, and unimportant, being clear on what you really need and resisting what you don’t can be an ongoing struggle. The beauty of voluntary simplicity is that it is a philosophy and not a dogma. How one goes about it depends on individual character, cultural background, and climate. For this, the three Rs (i.e., Reduce, Recycle & Reuse) represent the best way to get a   handle on rampant consumerism.   In economies driven by the quest for evermore, living with less is erroneously equated with poverty and social inferiority. By conserving energy, for instance, you are actually ensuring that more resources are available for future use. By making a frugal budget and sticking to it, you can eliminate unnecessary expenses. Recycling paper, metal, plastic, and glass and reusing building materials and old clothing keep materials in the loop and out of landfills. Pooling skills and resources through barter networks not only saves money but sharing with others establishes bonds and fosters a sense of community. With the glut of cheap goods that are usually designed for obsolescence, quality products that last are becoming progressively harder to find. In the long run, a more expensive but durable and repairable item or even an older used item that is still in good condition is a better investment than a brand new piece of junk that will only break down and end up in the trash. Thus, at the heart of voluntary simplicity is the conscious realization that less is really more. Less consumption means more resources for future generations. Less activity that brings little satisfaction or reward is more time for yourself and your loved ones. Less stuff is more space to move around in. Less stress means more relaxation and better health. Less worry provides more enjoyment and more fulfillment in life.

 

ENGLISH (PRECIS & COMPOSITION)

Questions:                                                                                        (4 marks each)

1.      How important is happiness to most people, and what is the relationship between material wealth and happiness?

2.      How does the author characterize the concept of ‘Voluntary Simplicity’ as a movement and as a philosophy?

3.      What impact is feared by the growing consumerism of modern society?

4.      What influences make it difficult for people to reduce their consumption patterns?

5.      What are the challenges and rewards of voluntary simplicity?

A.     1. Happiness is very important to most people, as it is the ultimate goal of human existence. However, what makes people happy may vary depending on their values, beliefs, and circumstances. According to the passage, happiness is not necessarily correlated with material wealth, as North Americans and Europeans are not the happiest people on earth despite their affluence. The passage suggests that happiness may be more related to living a simple, meaningful, and sustainable life, as advocated by the voluntary simplicity movement. This movement aims to reduce the consumption of goods and energy, minimize the environmental impact, and focus on the inner self and the community. The passage implies that happiness can be achieved by making conscious choices that align with one’s true needs and desires, and by finding a balance between freedom and responsibility.

2.     The author characterizes the concept of ‘Voluntary Simplicity’ as both a movement and a philosophy. As a movement, it is a quiet revolution that spread through books, magazines, communities, and websites, and that sought to reduce the consumption of goods and energy and to minimize the environmental impact. As a philosophy, it is a conscious choice to make appropriate changes that will enrich life in a deeper, spiritual sense, and to eliminate the clutter that distracts from the inner self. It is also a balance between freedom and authority and between personal and social purposes.

3.     The impact that is feared by the growing consumerism of modern society is the depletion of natural resources, the degradation of the environment, the increase of waste and pollution, the loss of quality and durability, and the alienation and dissatisfaction of people.

4.     The influences that make it difficult for people to reduce their consumption patterns are the advertising industry, social pressure, the market economy, the quest for status and success, and the habit of convenience and comfort.

5.     The challenges of voluntary simplicity are the differentiation between wants and needs, the resistance to temptation and peer pressure, the adaptation to new lifestyles and values, and the maintenance of consistency and commitment. The rewards of voluntary simplicity are the conservation of resources, the saving of money, the recycling and reusing of materials, the sharing and bartering of skills, the creation of community, the reduction of stress, the improvement of health, the enhancement of enjoyment, and the fulfillment of life.

Q. 4.

Correct only FIVE of the following:                                                                                                                              (10)

(i)                 His knowledge of languages and international relations aid him in his work.

(ii)               The ambassador, with his family and staff, invite you to a reception at the embassy on Tuesday afternoon.

(iii)           This year, he will sit in the CSS examination.

(iv)           The Chief Executive will let us know whether or not he can attend the meeting.

(v)             When he came back from vacation, Aslam and me plan to look for another apartment.

(vi)           If some of you make a noise, they shall be punished.

(vii)         He came to me to enquire what is the salary attached to the appointment.

(viii)         I am too tired that I do not hunt words and idioms in my English book.

A.(i) His knowledge of languages and international relations aids him in his work. (The subject is singular, so the verb should be singular too) (ii) The ambassador, with his family and staff, invites you to a reception at the embassy on Tuesday afternoon. (The subject is singular, so the verb should be singular too. The phrase ‘with his family and staff’ is not part of the subject)

(iii) This year, he will take the CSS examination. (We use ‘take’ to indicate participating in an examination, not ‘sit’) (iv) The Chief Executive will let us know whether he can attend the meeting. (We use ‘whether’ to indicate a choice between two alternatives, not ‘whether or not’)

(v) When he comes back from vacation, Aslam and I will plan to look for another apartment. (We use present tense after ‘when’ to indicate a future event, not past tense. We use ‘I’ as the subject of a sentence, not ‘me’. We use ‘will’ to indicate a future action, not present tense)

(vi) If some of you make a noise, you shall be punished. (We use the same pronoun for the subject and the object of a conditional sentence, not different pronouns) (vii) He came to me to enquire what the salary attached to the appointment was. (We use past tense after ‘enquire’ to report what someone asked in the past, and invert the subject and the verb)

(viii) I am so tired that I do not hunt words and idioms in my English book. (We use ‘so’ to indicate the degree of an adjective that causes a result, not ‘too’)

Q. 5. (a)

 

 

 

 

 

(b)

Punctuate the following text, where necessary.                                                                                                      (05)

while taking a nap on the porch one hot summer day hodga dreamed that a stranger promised to give him ten pieces of gold the stranger placed them in hodgas hand one by one until he reached the tenth piece which he hesitated to give him Come on what are you waiting for said Hodge you promised me ten just then he woke up he immediately looked at his hand and saw that it was empty he quickly shut his eyes again stretched out his hand and said all right i ll settle for nine.

A. While taking a nap on the porch one hot summer day, Hodga dreamed that a stranger promised to give him ten pieces of gold. The stranger placed them in Hodga’s hand one by one until he reached the tenth piece, which he hesitated to give him. “Come on, what are you waiting for?” said Hodga. “You promised me ten.” Just then, he woke up. He immediately looked at his hand and saw that it was empty. He quickly shut his eyes again, stretched out his hand, and said, “All right, I’ll settle for nine.”

(b)Rewrite the following sentences (ONLY FIVE) after filling in the blanks with appropriate Prepositions.                                                                                                  (05)

(i)                 The neighbours came   my house to see what’s going on in the house.

(ii)               She sat         the shade of the tree.

(iii)             The moon does not shine   its own light.

(iv)             The burglar jumped      the compound wall.

(v)               She entered         an agreement with them.

(vi)             I have been working hard    arithmetic.

(vii)           He got           his bicycle.

(viii)         It cannot be done       offence.

A . (i)                The neighbours came to my house to see what was going on in the house. (We use ‘to’ to indicate the destination or direction of movement)

(ii)              She sat in the shade of the tree. (We use ‘in’ to indicate being inside or enclosed by something)

(iii)            The moon does not shine with its own light. (We use ‘with’ to indicate the instrument or means of something)

(iv)            The burglar jumped over the compound wall. (We use ‘over’ to indicate movement across or above something)

(v)               She entered into an agreement with them. (We use ‘into’ to indicate becoming involved or engaged in something)

(vi)            I have been working hard on arithmetic. (We use ‘on’ to indicate the subject or topic of something)

(vii)          He got on his bicycle. (We use ‘on’ to indicate being in contact or supported by something)

(viii)       It cannot be done without offense. (We use ‘without’ to indicate the absence or lack of something)

A. some other common prepositions in English. Prepositions are words that show the relationship between people, places, or things in a sentence. They are usually followed by a noun or a pronoun. For example:

  • She lives in New York. (in = location)
  • He arrived after me. (after = time)
  • She gave the book to him. (to = direction)

Q. 6.

Use only FIVE pairs of words in sentences clearly illustrating their meanings.                                                                                                      (10)

(i)      Antic, Antique                         (ii)     Draught, Drought

(iii)    Quaint, Queer                          (iv)    Momentary, Momentous

(v)     Compliment, Complement      (vi)    Eminent, Imminent

(vii)   Faint, Feint                              (viii)  Immigrant, Emigrant

 

A. (i) Antic, Antique: Antic means a playful or silly act, while antique means something old and valuable. For example:

  • The children performed various antics to make their parents laugh.
  • She collects antiques from different countries and displays them in her house.

(ii) Draught, Drought: Draught means a current of air, while drought means a long period of dry weather. For example:

  • He opened the window to let in some fresh draught.
  • The farmers suffered from the severe drought that lasted for months.

(iii) Quaint, Queer: Quaint means charmingly old-fashioned, while queer means strange. For example:

  • He lives in a quaint cottage in the countryside.
  • She felt a queer sensation in her stomach when she saw him.

(iv) Momentary, Momentous: Momentary means lasting for a very short time, while momentous means significant. For example:

  • He felt a momentary pang of regret but soon forgot about it.
  • She made a momentous decision to quit her job and travel the world.

(v) Compliment, Complement: Compliment means a polite expression of praise or admiration, while complement means something that completes or enhances something else. For example:

  • He paid her a compliment on her beautiful dress.
  • The red scarf complements her outfit perfectly.

(vi) Eminent, Imminent: Eminent means distinguished or prominent, while imminent means about to happen or impending. For example:

  • She is an eminent scholar in the field of linguistics.
  • The storm is imminent, so we should seek shelter.

(vii) Faint, Feint: Faint means weak or faint, while feint means a deceptive or pretended move. For example:

  • He felt faint after donating blood and had to lie down.
  • He made a feint to the left and then dodged to the right.

(viii) Immigrant, Emigrant: Immigrant means a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country, while emigrant means a person who leaves their own country to live in another. For example:

  • He is an immigrant from India who settled in Canada.
  • She is an emigrant who moved from Canada to India.

Q No 7. Translate the following into English by keeping in view figurative/idiomatic expressions. (10)

ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﮯ ﺑﺘﺎﯾﺎ ﮐہ ﺟﻨﮕﻞ ﮐﮯ ﭘﺎر اﯾﮏ ﭘﮩﺎڑ ﮨﮯ ﺟﮩﺎں وه ﭘﮭﻮل اُﮔﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ ﺟﺲ ﮐﯽ ﺧﻮﺷﺒﻮ ﺳﮯ آﻧﮑﮭﻮں ﮐﯽ ﮐﮭﻮﺋﯽ ﮨﻮﺋﯽ روﺷﻨﯽ ﻟﻮٹ آﺗﯽ ﮨﮯ ،ﻣﮕﺮ ﭘﮩﺎڑ ﺑﮩﺖ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﮨﮯ اور اس ﭘﺮ ﺑﮯ ﺷﻤﺎر

ﭼﮣﺎﻧﯿﮟ ﮨﯿﮟ ،ﮐﺎﻧﮣﮯ دار ﺟﮭﺎڑﯾﺎں ﮨﯿﮟ اور ﺑﮍے ﺑﮍے ﭘﺘﮭﺮ ﮨﯿﮟ ﺟﻮ راﺳﺘہ روک ﻟﯿﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ۔ اِس ﭘﮩﺎڑ

ﭘﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﮯ ﮐﮯ ﻟﯿﮯ ﮐﺌﯽ ﻟﻮگ آﺋﮯ اور ﭼﻠﮯﮔﺌﮯ ﻣﮕﺮ اﯾﺴﺎ ﮐﻮ ﺋﯽ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ آﯾﺎ ﺟﻮ ﭘﮭﻮل ﺗﮏ

ﭘﮩﻨﭽﺎ ﮨﻮ۔ ﺷﺎﯾﺪ اِﺳﯽ ﻟﯿﮯ دُﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ دُﮐﮭ اور ﺗﮑﻠﯿﻒ ﮨﮯ اور اﻧﺴﺎن روﺷﻨﯽ ﮐﯽ ﺗﻼش ﻣﯿﮟ ﮨﮯ۔

The elder said that there is a mountain facing the forest where a flower grows whose fragrance restores the lost light of the eyes, but the mountain is very high and there are countless on it.

There are rocks, thorn bushes, and big stones that block the way. This mountain

Many people came and went to visit, but no one came to the flower.

have arrived Perhaps that is why there is pain and suffering in the world and man is searching for light.

By Hamid Mahmood

Hamid Mahmood Veteran | Ex Principal | Author | Blog/Content Creator | Former Security Consultant | Trainer Education: • Master in Political Science ,LLB, PGD (HRM) Beliefs: Humanity, Tolerance, Co-Existence (Live and Let Live), Peace, Harmony. Tranquility, Nature (children, poetry, birds, flowers, plants, and greenery) Experience: • Hamid Mahmood is a veteran with a wealth of experience in various fields. • He has served as an ex-principal, showcasing his leadership and educational expertise. • As an author, he has contributed valuable knowledge and insights to the literary world. • Hamid Mahmood is a dedicated blog and content creator, sharing his thoughts and ideas with a wide audience. • With a background as a former security consultant, he possesses a deep understanding of security-related matters. • Additionally, Hamid Mahmood has worked as a trainer, passing on his knowledge and skills to others. Travels: • He has explored various regions of Pakistan, including the Azad Kashmir Mountains, the deserts of Sind and Punjab, the lush green tops of KP, the rugged hilltops of Baluchistan, and the bustling city of Karachi. • His extensive travels have given him a profound appreciation for the beauty of Pakistan, leading him to believe that it is one of the most stunning places on Earth.

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