FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION

                                                      COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION-2021

                                        GENDER STUDIES

 

 

TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS PART-I(MCQS): MAXIMUM 30 MINUTES

PART-I (MCQS)         MAXIMUM MARKS = 20 PART-II                                   MAXIMUM MARKS = 80

NOTE: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.

(ii)          Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-IIALL questions carry EQUAL marks.

(iii)       All the parts (if any) of ach Question must be attempted at one place instead of at different places.

(iv)        Write Q. No. in the Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q.Paper.

(v)         No Page/Space be left blank between the answers. All the blank pages of Answer Book must be crossed.

(vi)          Extra attempt of any question or any part of the question will not be considered.

PART-II

Gender Studies
Gender Studies

FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING/ASSIMILATION I ATTEMPTED /PREPARED SOME OF THE PREVIOUS PAPERS. SHARE THESE SUBSEQUENTLY FOR THE ASPIRANTS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF INCOMING EXAMINATIONS.

 

CSS Examination
CSS Examination

Q No. 2.  Gender has multiple meanings. How do you deconstruct the word “GENDER”?

A . The word “gender” can be deconstructed in different ways, depending on the perspective and context. Here are some possible ways to deconstruct the word “gender”:

Summary:

  • The word “gender” can be deconstructed differently, depending on the perspective and context.
  • Some possible ways to deconstruct the word “gender” are gender as a social construct, gender as a spectrum, and gender as an intersectionality.
  • These ways of deconstructing the word “gender” show that gender is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that is influenced by and influences various social and cultural factors.

Q. No. 3.

How the colonial era influence the status of women in the subcontinent?

 

(20)

 

 

The Influence of the Colonial Era on the Status of Women in the Subcontinent

A . Introduction

  • The colonial era refers to the period of British rule in the Indian subcontinent from the 18th to the 20th century.
  • The status of women in the subcontinent was influenced by both the positive and negative aspects of the colonial era, as well as the pre-existing and post-colonial factors of the subcontinent.
  • The status of women in the subcontinent was not uniform or static, but rather diverse and dynamic, depending on the historical, regional, and social contexts.

1. Positive Aspects of the Colonial Era

  • The colonial era introduced some reforms and opportunities for women in the subcontinent, such as:

Education

Legal Rights

Social Movements

Exposure to Western Ideas and Values

2 . Negative Aspects of the Colonial Era

  • The colonial era also reinforced and exacerbated some of the existing forms and sources of oppression and discrimination against women in the subcontinent, such as:

Patriarchy

Feudalism

Religion and Culture

Challenges and Conflicts

    • The colonial era also created new challenges and conflicts for women in the subcontinent, such as:

Identity

Modernity

Nationalism

Conclusion

  • The colonial era had a mixed impact on the status of women in the subcontinent, as it brought both positive and negative changes.
  • The positive changes included reforms and opportunities for women in education, legal rights, social movements, and exposure to Western ideas and values.
  • The negative changes included reinforcement and exacerbation of oppression and discrimination against women based on patriarchy, feudalism, religion, and culture.
  • The colonial era also created new challenges and conflicts for women, such as identity, modernity, and nationalism.
  • The status of women in the subcontinent was diverse and dynamic, depending on the historical, regional, and social contexts.

Summary

  • The question of the colonial era and the status of women in the subcontinent is complex and multifaceted, requiring a lot of research and analysis.
  • The colonial era introduced some reforms and opportunities for women in the subcontinent, but also reinforced and exacerbated some of the existing forms and sources of oppression and discrimination against women.
  • The colonial era also created new challenges and conflicts for women in the subcontinent, such as identity, modernity, and nationalism.
  • The status of women in the subcontinent was uniform and dynamic, but rather diverse and dynamic, depending on the historical, regional, and social contexts.

Q. No. 4.’Language is gendered’, what does this imply? Explain with examples.CSS Examination

A . The phrase ‘language is gendered’ implies that language reflects and influences the social and cultural constructions of gender in a given society. Language can be gendered in different ways, such as:

  • Using gender-specific terms or pronouns to refer to people, professions, or objects, such as ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘waiter’, ‘waitress’, ‘chairman’, ‘chairwoman’, etc. This can create a bias or a stereotype towards a certain gender, and exclude or marginalize other genders.
  • Using gendered forms or endings to mark the grammatical gender of nouns, adjectives, or verbs, such as ‘le’, ‘la’, ‘el’, ‘la’, ‘der’, ‘die’, ‘das’, etc. This can assign a gender to things that are not inherently gendered, and reinforce the binary and hierarchical distinction between masculine and feminine.
  • Using gendered expressions or metaphors to describe or compare things, such as ‘man up’, ‘ladylike’, ‘mother nature’, ‘fatherland’, etc. This can convey a certain attitude or value towards a gender, and naturalize or normalize the gender roles and norms in a society.

Some examples of gendered language are:

  • In English, the generic use of ‘he’ or ‘man’ to refer to all people, such as ‘mankind’, ‘man-made’, ‘the common man’, etc. This can imply that men are the norm or the standard, and women are the exception or the deviation.
  • In French, the grammatical rule that the masculine form prevails over the feminine form in plural or mixed constructions, such as ‘ils sont heureux’ (they are happy) for a group of men or a group of men and women, but ‘elles sont heureuses’ (they are happy) only for a group of women. This can suggest that the masculine is more important or dominant than the feminine.
  • In Chinese, the use of different characters for the same word depending on the gender of the speaker, such as ‘我’ (I) for men and ‘妾’ (I) for women in classical Chinese, or ‘哥哥’ (older brother) for men and ‘姐姐’ (older sister) for women in modern Chinese. This can indicate that the gender identity of the speaker is relevant or significant in the communication.

 

 

Q No 5 . Women need to be in leadership positions to pull more women into leadership roles. Is this suggestion that women need to “pull each other up” a useful one, or is that inappropriate preferential treatment? (20)

A . This is a complex and controversial question that has no definitive answer but rather depends on one’s perspective and values. Here are some possible arguments for and against the suggestion that women need to “pull each other up” in leadership positions.

Arguments for the suggestion

Arguments against the suggestion

  • Women in leadership positions may not necessarily help other women, as they may face pressures and constraints from the dominant male culture and structure, or they may adopt the same competitive and individualistic behaviors and values as men. Women in leadership positions may also perceive other women as threats or rivals, rather than allies or partners.
  • Women in leadership positions may also create a backlash or resentment from men, who may feel threatened or discriminated by the increasing presence and influence of women in power. Men may also accuse women of using their gender as an advantage or a privilege, rather than their merit or competence.
  • Women in leadership positions may also reinforce or reproduce the existing inequalities and injustices in society, as they may not represent or address the diverse and intersectional needs and interests of different groups of women, such as women of color, LGBTQ+ women, disabled women, and immigrant women.

Summary

  • The question of whether women need to “pull each other up” in leadership positions is a complex and controversial one, that has no definitive answer but rather depends on one’s perspective and values.
  • Some possible arguments for the suggestion are that women in leadership positions can help other women overcome the barriers and challenges they face, create a more inclusive and diverse organizational culture and climate, and serve as role models and inspirations for other women.
  • Some possible arguments against the suggestion are that women in leadership positions may not necessarily help other women, may create a backlash or resentment from men, and may reinforce or reproduce the existing inequalities and injustices in society.

 

Q. No. 6.“For realizing, in letter and spirit, the ideals of a democratic welfare state, it is necessary to institute a system which fully guarantees human rights, generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights, and provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights”. Critically evaluate the statement with special reference to Pakistan.  (20)

A . Critical Evaluation of the Statement

The Statement

  • The statement implies that a democratic welfare state is an ideal form of governance that aims to promote the well-being and dignity of all its citizens, regardless of their differences and diversity.
  • The statement also implies that human rights are the fundamental and universal rights and freedoms that belong to every human being, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status.
  • The statement further implies that a system that guarantees human rights generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights, and provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights is a necessary condition for realizing the ideals of a democratic welfare state.

The Evaluation

  • The evaluation of the statement can be done from different perspectives, such as legal, political, social, economic, and cultural. Here are some possible arguments for and against the statement, from these perspectives:
    • Legal: A system that guarantees human rights is essential for ensuring the rule of law, the separation of powers, and the accountability and transparency of the government. However, a system that guarantees human rights may not be sufficient or effective, if the laws and policies are not consistent, comprehensive, or compatible with international human rights standards and norms, or if the institutions and mechanisms are not independent, impartial, or responsive.
    • Political: A system that generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights is beneficial for enhancing the legitimacy, credibility, and stability of the government, and for fostering the trust, confidence, and loyalty of the citizens. However, a system that generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights may be challenging or threatening, if the power and interests of the government or the elite groups are incompatible or conflicting with the human rights of the citizens or the marginalized groups, or if the actors and stakeholders involved in the human rights issues have different or competing agendas, ideologies, or values.
    • Social: A system that provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights is desirable for creating a culture of respect, dignity, and equality for all human beings, regardless of their differences and diversity. However, a system that provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights may be controversial or contentious, if the conflicts and cooperation among the actors and stakeholders involved in the human rights issues are influenced or interfered with by external or internal forces, or if the criteria and methods of the human rights system and structure are not accepted or agreed by the cultural actors and stakeholders of the country.
    • Economic: A system that guarantees human rights is advantageous for stimulating the economic growth, development, and prosperity of the country, and for enhancing the living standards, well-being, and happiness of the people. However, a system that guarantees human rights may be expensive or unaffordable, if the resources and capacities of the country are limited or lacking, or if the allocation and distribution of the resources and capacities are unequal or unfair.
    • Cultural: A system that generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights is respectful for acknowledging and appreciating the cultural diversity and richness of the country, and for protecting and promoting the cultural rights and freedoms of the people. However, a system that generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights may be insensitive or inappropriate, if the beliefs and practices of the country are not compatible or consistent with the human rights principles and standards, or if the human rights principles and standards are imposed or enforced without regard to the cultural context and reality of the country.

The Reference to Pakistan

  • The reference to Pakistan can be done by applying and illustrating the arguments for and against the statement, to the specific and relevant examples and cases of the human rights situation in Pakistan.
  • Some possible examples and cases of the human rights situation in Pakistan are:
    • The constitutional and legal framework of human rights in Pakistan, such as the Fundamental Rights, the Human Rights Commission, and the National Action Plan for Human Rights
    • The political and security situation of human rights in Pakistan, such as the civil-military relations, the democratic transition, and the terrorism and extremism
    • The social and cultural situation of human rights in Pakistan, such as the gender inequality, the religious intolerance, and the ethnic diversity
    • The economic and developmental situation of human rights in Pakistan, such as poverty, corruption, and environmental degradation
    • The regional and international situation of human rights in Pakistan, such as the Kashmir dispute, the Afghan conflict, and the UN conventions and resolutions

Summary

  • The question of whether a system that guarantees human rights, generates a conducive environment for the pragmatic use and beneficial enjoyment of human rights, and provides operative safeguards and expeditious remedy against any violation of human rights is necessary for realizing the ideals of a democratic welfare state is a complex and multifaceted one, that requires a lot of research and analysis.
  • The answer to the question can be done from different perspectives, such as legal, political, social, economic, and cultural, and each perspective can have arguments for and against the statement, depending on the evidence and reasoning.
  • The reference to Pakistan can be made by applying and illustrating the arguments for and against the statement, to the specific and relevant examples and cases of the human rights situation in Pakistan, which can show the strengths and weaknesses of the human rights system and structure in the country.

 

Q. No. 7. Comment on the power and control relationship in gender-based violence. (20)

A . Gender-based violence (GBV) is a form of violence that is rooted in exploiting unequal power relationships between genders. GBV reflects and reinforces the power imbalance that favors men over women in many societies, and that is often manifested in the norms, values, and practices of those societies. GBV can include physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, as well as harmful cultural practices, such as female genital mutilation, child marriage, dowry-related violence, and honor killings. GBV can occur in different settings, such as the family, the community, the workplace, and the state, and can affect women and girls of all ages, backgrounds, and identities. GBV can have serious and lasting consequences for the health, well-being, and dignity of the survivors, as well as for the development and peace of the society.

GBV stands for gender-based violence, which is a form of violence that is rooted in exploiting unequal power relationships between genders. GBV reflects and reinforces the power imbalance that favors men over women in many societies, and that is often manifested in the norms, values, and practices of those societies. GBV can include physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, as well as harmful cultural practices, such as female genital mutilation, child marriage, dowry-related violence, and honor killings. GBV can occur in different settings, such as the family, the community, the workplace, and the state, and can affect women and girls of all ages, backgrounds, and identities. GBV can have serious and lasting consequences for the health, well-being, and dignity of the survivors, as well as for the development and peace of the society.

Some of the causes of GBV are:

Some of the consequences of GBV are:

 

Summary:

  • GBV is a form of violence that is based on exploiting unequal power relationships between genders.
  • GBV reflects and reinforces the power imbalance that favors men over women in many societies, and that is often manifested in the norms, values, and practices of those societies.
  • GBV can include various types of abuse and harmful practices and can occur in different settings and affect different groups of women and girls.
  • GBV can have serious and lasting consequences for the survivors and the society.

 

Q. No. 8. Discuss the background of the two Oscar-winning documentaries by Sharmeen  Obiod.(20)

A . Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy is a Pakistani-Canadian journalist and filmmaker who has won two Oscars for her documentaries that highlight the issues of gender inequality and violence against women in Pakistan. Her first Oscar-winning documentary, Saving Face (2012), follows the stories of two survivors of acid attacks, Zakia and Rukhsana, and their quest for justice and healing. The documentary also features the work of Dr. Mohammad Jawad, a plastic surgeon who offers free reconstructive surgery to the victims of acid attacks. The documentary exposes the physical, psychological, and social impacts of acid violence, as well as the legal and cultural barriers that prevent the perpetrators from being held accountable. The documentary also shows the resilience and courage of the survivors, who seek to rebuild their lives and reclaim their dignity. Saving Face won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Short Subject at the 84th Academy Awards in 201212

Her second Oscar-winning documentary, A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness (2016), follows the story of Saba, a young woman who survives an attempted honor killing by her father and uncle after she elopes and marries a man of her choice. The documentary reveals the prevalence and impunity of honor killings in Pakistan, where hundreds of women are murdered every year by their relatives for allegedly bringing shame to their families. The documentary also explores the complex and contradictory forces that shape Saba’s fate, such as the pressure from her community, the influence of religion, and the power of forgiveness. The documentary also shows the efforts of activists, lawyers, and politicians who are trying to change the laws and norms that enable honor killings. A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Short Subject at the 88th Academy Awards in 201634

Summary:

  • Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy is a Pakistani-Canadian journalist and filmmaker who has won two Oscars for her documentaries that highlight the issues of gender inequality and violence against women in Pakistan.
  • Her first Oscar-winning documentary, Saving Face (2012), follows the stories of two survivors of acid attacks, and their quest for justice and healing.
  • Her second Oscar-winning documentary, A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness (2016), follows the story of a young woman who survives an attempted honor killing, and her struggle to decide her fate.
  • Both documentaries expose the physical, psychological, and social impacts of gender-based violence, as well as the legal and cultural barriers that prevent the perpetrators from being held accountable.
  • Both documentaries also show the resilience and courage of the survivors, who seek to rebuild their lives and reclaim their dignity.

 

 

By Hamid Mahmood

Hamid Mahmood Veteran | Ex Principal | Author | Blog/Content Creator | Former Security Consultant | Trainer Education: • Master in Political Science ,LLB, PGD (HRM) Beliefs: Humanity, Tolerance, Co-Existence (Live and Let Live), Peace, Harmony. Tranquility, Nature (children, poetry, birds, flowers, plants, and greenery) Experience: • Hamid Mahmood is a veteran with a wealth of experience in various fields. • He has served as an ex-principal, showcasing his leadership and educational expertise. • As an author, he has contributed valuable knowledge and insights to the literary world. • Hamid Mahmood is a dedicated blog and content creator, sharing his thoughts and ideas with a wide audience. • With a background as a former security consultant, he possesses a deep understanding of security-related matters. • Additionally, Hamid Mahmood has worked as a trainer, passing on his knowledge and skills to others. Travels: • He has explored various regions of Pakistan, including the Azad Kashmir Mountains, the deserts of Sind and Punjab, the lush green tops of KP, the rugged hilltops of Baluchistan, and the bustling city of Karachi. • His extensive travels have given him a profound appreciation for the beauty of Pakistan, leading him to believe that it is one of the most stunning places on Earth.

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