|Q. No. 2.
|How do you differentiate the discipline of Gender Studies from that of Women Studies? Historically trace the need for the establishment of Gender Studies as a distinct discipline and its scope and significance with especial reference to Pakistan.
A . Difference and Development of Gender Studies and Women Studies
- Emerged in the 1970s as a feminist academic movement
- Challenged male-dominated and androcentric knowledge production
- Highlighted women’s experiences, contributions, and issues
- Focused on women as a marginalized and oppressed group
- Sought to empower women through education, activism, and advocacy
- Developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a response to critiques and limitations of Women’s Studies
- Critiques included: assuming a universal and homogeneous category of women, ignoring diversity and intersectionality of women’s identities and experiences, neglecting men and masculinity
- Expanded scope to include not only women, but also men, transgender, and non-binary people
- Examined how gender interacts with other factors such as race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, ability, and sexuality
- Adopted a more critical and deconstructive approach to gender, questioning naturalness, stability, and binary of gender categories, and exploring multiple and fluid ways that gender is performed, negotiated, and resisted
Gender Studies in Pakistan
- Influenced by both global and local factors
- Global factors: international discourses and debates on gender and development, human rights, and feminism; support and funding from donor agencies and NGOs
- Local factors: political, economic, social, and cultural situation of Pakistan; challenges and opportunities such as religious fundamentalism, globalization and modernization, diversity and complexity of population, resilience and activism of women’s movement
- Established in 1989 as a project by the Ministry of Women Development, Government of Pakistan, in five public universities
- Initially called Women Studies, later changed to Gender Studies to reflect broader and more inclusive perspective
- Grown and expanded since then, with more universities, scholars, students, research, publications, collaborations, and networks
- Gender Studies and Women Studies are both interdisciplinary fields that examine gender and sexuality but have different origins, perspectives, and focuses
- Women’s Studies emerged as a feminist movement that challenged male dominance and highlighted women’s issues
- Gender Studies developed as a response to critiques of Women’s Studies that ignored diversity and intersectionality of gender and sexuality
- Gender Studies in Pakistan was influenced by both global and local factors and has grown and expanded over time
- Gender Studies provide a critical lens to analyze and understand Pakistani society, and contribute to social change and transformation
|Q. No. 3.
|Outline and explain the three major waves of feminist movements in the West. Discuss the influence of these waves on feminist movements in Pakistan.
A . The Three Major Waves of Feminism in the West
1 . First Wave: 19th and early 20th century
- The first wave of feminism began in the late 19th century and continued until the early 20th century.
- The main goal of the first wave was to secure equal political rights for women, especially the right to vote.
- The first wave was influenced by the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the abolitionist movement, and the industrialization of society.
- Some of the prominent figures of the first wave were Mary Wollstonecraft, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Emmeline Pankhurst, and Alice Paul.
2 . Second Wave: 1960s to late 1980s
- The second wave of feminism started in the 1960s and lasted until the late 1980s.
- The main goal of the second wave was to challenge the patriarchal structures and norms that oppressed women in various aspects of life, such as education, work, family, sexuality, and culture.
- The second wave was influenced by the civil rights movement, the anti-war movement, the student movement, and the sexual revolution.
- Some of the prominent figures of the second wave were Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Simone de Beauvoir, Angela Davis, and bell hooks.
3 . Third Wave: 1990s to 2010s
- The third wave of feminism began in the 1990s and continued until the 2010s.
- The main goal of the third wave was to celebrate the diversity and intersectionality of women’s identities and experiences and to address the issues of marginalized and oppressed groups of women, such as women of color, LGBTQ+ women, disabled women, and immigrant women.
- The third wave was influenced by the postmodernism, the globalization, the internet, and the pop culture.
- Some of the prominent figures of the third wave were Rebecca Walker, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Judith Butler, Naomi Wolf, and Malala Yousafzai.
4 . The Influence of the Three Waves of Feminism on Pakistan
- The feminist movement in Pakistan has been shaped by both global and local factors and has been influenced by the three waves of feminism in the West to varying degrees.
- The first wave of feminism had a limited impact on Pakistan, as the country gained its independence in 1947, and women were granted the right to vote and reserved seats in the parliament. However, women still faced many legal and social barriers to their equality and empowerment.
- The second wave of feminism had a significant impact on Pakistan, as women started to challenge the sexist and oppressive laws and practices that were imposed by the military dictatorship and religious fundamentalism. Women also demanded more education, employment, and political participation. Some of the achievements of the second wave in Pakistan were the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance (1961), the Women’s Action Forum (1981), and the Hudood Ordinances Repeal Bill (2006).
- The third wave of feminism has also influenced Pakistan, as women have become more aware and vocal about their diverse and intersectional issues and identities, and have used the internet and the media to raise their voices and mobilize their movements. Women have also engaged in dialogue and collaboration with other social movements and groups, such as human rights, peace, and environmental movements. Some of the examples of the third wave in Pakistan are the Aurat March (2018), the Digital Rights Foundation (2012), and the Girls at Dhabas (2015).
1: Influence of three major waves of feminist movements in Pakistan 2: Feminism in Pakistan: A brief history 3: Empowering Women: Impact of Feminist Movement on Pakistan 4: Feminism and the Women’s Movement in Pakistan 5: What Are The Three Waves Of Feminism? 6: Feminism | Definition, History, Types, Waves, Examples, & Facts 7: A Brief Look at the Three Waves of Feminism 8: What Are the Four Waves of Feminism? 9: Types of Feminism: The Four Waves
- The answer outlines and explains the three major waves of feminism in the West: the first wave (19th and early 20th century) that fought for equal political rights for women, the second wave (1960s to late 1980s) that challenged the patriarchal structures and norms that oppressed women in various aspects of life, and the third wave (1990s to 2010s) that celebrated the diversity and intersectionality of women’s identities and experiences.
- The answer also discusses the influence of these waves on feminist movements in Pakistan, which have been shaped by both the global and the local factors. The first wave had a limited impact, as women already had some political rights. The second wave had a significant impact, as women started to challenge the sexist and oppressive laws and practices. The third wave has also influenced Pakistan, as women have become more aware and vocal about their diverse and intersectional issues and identities.
|Q. No. 4.
|Explain the relevance of Modernization Theory and Dependency Theory to gender equality. Critically analyze the subordination of women in modern societies in the light of these two theories.
1 . Modernization Theory
2 . Dependency Theory
3 . Gender Equality and Subordination of Women
- Gender equality is the state or condition of equal rights, opportunities, and outcomes for women and men, regardless of their differences and diversity7.
- Subordination of women is the state or condition of inferiority, discrimination, and oppression of women by men, based on their gender and other factors such as race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, ability, and sexuality8.
- Gender equality and subordination of women are influenced by both global and local factors, and vary across time and space, depending on the historical, cultural, political, economic, and social contexts of different societies78.
3 . Critical Analysis
|Q. No. 5.
|The process of globalization has connected nations worldwide and has made the world a global village, yet it has also increased inequalities across nations. Discuss the gendered inequalities created and promoted by the process of globalization in contemporary societies worldwide.
A . Globalization and Gender Inequality
- Globalization is the process of increasing economic, social, cultural, and political integration and interdependence among countries and regions in the world1.
- Gender inequality is the state or condition of unequal rights, opportunities, and outcomes for women and men, based on their gender and other factors such as race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, ability, and sexuality2.
- Globalization and gender inequality are interrelated and mutually reinforcing phenomena, as they both shape and are shaped by the historical, structural, and cultural factors of different societies and contexts3.
1. The Effects of Globalization on Gender Inequality
- The effects of globalization on gender inequality are not uniform or linear, but rather diverse and complex, depending on the dimensions, indicators, and levels of analysis4.
- Some of the effects of globalization on gender inequality are positive and empowering, as they provide more access and opportunities for women in various domains, such as education, employment, health, and political participation.
- Some of the effects of globalization on gender inequality are negative and disempowering, as they reinforce and exacerbate the existing barriers and challenges for women in various domains, such as poverty, violence, exploitation, and marginalization.
- Some of the effects of globalization on gender inequality are contradictory and ambiguous, as they create both opportunities and risks for women in various domains, such as trade, migration, technology, and culture.
2. The Causes and Consequences of Gender Inequality in Globalization
- The causes and consequences of gender inequality in globalization are not isolated or independent, but rather interconnected and interdependent, as they influence and are influenced by the global and local factors of different societies and contexts.
- Some of the causes of gender inequality in globalization are structural and systemic, as they reflect and reproduce the unequal and unfair distribution of power and resources among and within countries and regions, based on the gendered division of labor, roles, and norms.
- Some of the consequences of gender inequality in globalization are individual and collective, as they affect and are affected by the well-being and agency of women and men, as well as their families, communities, and societies.
- The question of globalization and gender inequality is a complex and multifaceted one that requires a holistic and nuanced approach to understand and address.
- Globalization and gender inequality are interrelated and mutually reinforcing phenomena that shape and are shaped by the historical, structural, and cultural factors of different societies and contexts.
- The effects of globalization on gender inequality are not uniform or linear, but rather diverse and complex, depending on the dimensions, indicators, and levels of analysis. They can be positive, negative, or contradictory for women in various domains.
- The causes and consequences of gender inequality in globalization are not isolated or independent, but rather interconnected and interdependent, as they influence and are influenced by the global and local factors of different societies and contexts. They can be structural, systemic, individual, or collective for women and men, as well as their families, communities, and societies.
|Q. No. 6.
|Women’s participation in the labor force has increased recently yet women continue to perform their reproductive roles. Discuss the challenges encountered by women as a result of their paid employment worldwide with especial reference to Pakistan..
The Challenges of Women’s Paid Employment
- Women’s participation in the labor force has increased in recent decades, but it is still lower than men’s in most countries and regions. According to the World Bank, the global female labor force participation rate was 47% in 2019, compared to 75% for men1.
- Women’s participation in the labor force is influenced by various factors, such as education, income, culture, religion, family, and social norms. These factors also affect the type, quality, and conditions of work that women can access and perform2.
- Women face many challenges as a result of their paid employment, both in the formal and informal sectors. Some of these challenges are:
- Gender wage gap: Women tend to earn less than men for the same or similar work, due to discrimination, occupational segregation, and lower bargaining power. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the global gender pay gap was 16% in 20163.
- Work-family balance: Women tend to bear the primary responsibility for unpaid domestic and care work, such as household chores, child care, and elder care. This limits their time and opportunities for paid work and creates stress and conflict between their work and family roles. According to the ILO, women spent almost three times as much time on unpaid care work as men in 20184.
- Workplace harassment and violence: Women are more likely to experience harassment and violence at work, such as sexual harassment, verbal abuse, physical assault, and intimidation. This affects their health, safety, dignity, and productivity. According to the ILO, 35% of women experienced some form of violence at work in 20185.
- Lack of social protection and rights: Women are more likely to work in the informal sector, where they have less access to social protection and labor rights, such as minimum wage, health insurance, maternity leave, and pension. This exposes them to more risks and vulnerabilities. According to the ILO, 58% of women workers were in informal employment in 20166.
The Case of Pakistan
- Pakistan is one of the countries with the lowest female labor force participation rates in the world. According to the World Bank, only 22% of women aged 15 and above were in the labor force in 2019, compared to 82% of men1.
- Pakistan’s low female labor force participation is attributed to multidimensional factors, including lack of gender-sensitive policies, income inequality, attitudes/harassment at workplaces, and stereotypes defining women’s role in society7.
- Pakistan’s women workers face many of the same challenges as their counterparts in other countries, but also some specific ones, such as:
- Religious and cultural barriers: Women in Pakistan face strong religious and cultural barriers that restrict their mobility, education, and employment opportunities. Many women need permission from their male relatives to work outside the home, and face social stigma and backlash if they do so. Some women also face pressure to wear veils or burqas, which may limit their access to certain jobs or services8.
- Security and safety issues: Women in Pakistan face high levels of insecurity and violence, both in public and private spaces. Women workers are often harassed and assaulted on their way to and from work, or at their workplaces, by strangers, colleagues, or employers. Some women also face domestic violence or honor killings by their family members if they work or earn more than their husbands9.
- Lack of infrastructure and services: Women in Pakistan lack adequate infrastructure and services that would enable them to work and care for their families. Many women do not have access to reliable and affordable transport, electricity, water, sanitation, health care, child care, and education. These factors increase their time poverty and opportunity costs of working10.
- The question of women’s participation in the labor force and reproductive roles is a complex and multifaceted one, that requires a holistic and gender-responsive approach to understand and address.
- Women’s participation in the labor force has increased in recent decades, but it is still lower than men’s in most countries and regions and is influenced by various factors, such as education, income, culture, religion, family, and social norms.
- Women face many challenges as a result of their paid employment, both in the formal and informal sectors, such as the gender wage gap, work-family balance, workplace harassment and violence, and lack of social protection and rights.
- Pakistan is one of the countries with the lowest female labor force participation rates in the world, and its women workers face many of the same challenges as their counterparts in other countries, but also some specific ones, such as religious and cultural barriers, security and safety issues, and lack of infrastructure and services.
|Q. No. 7.
|Explain the structural and direct forms of violence against women in the Pakistani society by highlighting the case study of Mukhtaran Mai.
1 . Structural and Direct Violence Against Women in Pakistan
- Violence against women in Pakistan is a major public health problem and a violation of women’s human rights. Women in Pakistan mainly encounter violence by being forced into marriage, through workplace sexual harassment, domestic violence and by honour killings1.
- Structural violence refers to the systematic and institutionalized forms of harm and oppression that women face due to the unequal and unfair distribution of power and resources in society, based on their gender and other factors such as race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, ability, and sexuality2.
- Direct violence refers to the physical and psychological forms of harm and aggression that women face from individuals or groups, such as rape, assault, murder, or torture2.
- Structural and direct violence are interrelated and mutually reinforcing, as they both reflect and reproduce the patriarchal and feudal culture, norms, and values that subordinate and discriminate against women in Pakistan3.
2 . The Case Study of Mukhtaran Mai
- Mukhtaran Mai, also known as Mukhtaran Bibi, is a Pakistani woman from the village of Meerwala, in the district of Muzaffargarh, who was gang-raped by four men in June 2002, on the orders of a tribal council of the local Mastoi clan, as a form of honor revenge for her younger brother’s alleged sexual assault of a woman from the clan4.
- Mukhtaran Mai defied the social norms and expectations of silence and shame, and filed charges against the rapists and the tribal council members, with the help of a local mosque imam and human rights activists. Her case attracted national and international attention and support, and became a symbol of women’s struggle for justice and dignity in Pakistan5.
- Mukhtaran Mai faced many obstacles and challenges in her pursuit of justice, as she had to deal with the corruption, incompetence, and bias of the police, the judiciary, and the media. She also faced threats, harassment, and backlash from the perpetrators, their supporters, and the conservative elements of society6.
- Mukhtaran Mai also used her courage and resilience to transform her trauma into empowerment, as she used the compensation money and the donations she received to establish schools, a shelter, and a women’s organization in her village, to provide education, protection, and support to women and girls in her community7.
- The question of structural and direct violence against women in Pakistan is a complex and multifaceted one that requires a holistic and human rights-based approach to understand and address.
- Violence against women in Pakistan is influenced by the patriarchal and feudal culture, norms, and values that subordinate and discriminate against women, and the unequal and unfair distribution of power and resources in society, based on gender and other factors.
- The case study of Mukhtaran Mai illustrates the challenges and opportunities that women face in seeking justice and dignity in Pakistan, and the courage and resilience that women display in transforming their trauma into empowerment.
|Q. No. 8.
|Write short notes on any TWO of the following. (10 each)
a. Suffragist movement
b. Postmodern Feminism
c. Structural Functionalism
Here are some short notes on the topics you asked:
a. Suffragist movement: The suffragist movement was a social and political movement that aimed to secure the right to vote for women in various countries and regions. The movement began in the late 19th century and continued until the early 20th century when many countries granted universal suffrage to women. Some of the prominent leaders and organizations of the suffragist movement were Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Emmeline Pankhurst, the Women’s Social and Political Union, and the American Woman Suffrage Association. The suffragist movement was influenced by the ideals of democracy, equality, and human rights, and faced opposition from conservative, religious, and patriarchal forces123
b. Postmodern Feminism: Postmodern feminism is a branch of third-wave feminism that incorporates the philosophies of postmodernism, post-structuralism, and French feminism. It sees gender stereotypes as culturally constructed through language and aims to de-throne the prevalent patriarchal binary norms, in favor of embracing differences and individual experiences. Postmodern feminism rejects the notions of essentialism, universalism, and objectivity, and instead emphasizes the importance of social context, power relations, and multiple discourses in understanding gender. Postmodern feminism has been criticized for being too theoretical, relativistic, and disconnected from real-world issues. Some of the influential thinkers and concepts of postmodern feminism are Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Donna Haraway, deconstruction, and performativity456
c. Structural Functionalism: Structural functionalism is a macro-level sociological perspective that focuses on large-scale social structures, social institutions, their interrelationships, and implications on society. It was developed by Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons and has various developing theories such as Division of Labor, AGIL model, Concept of Function, and Functional Theory of Stratification. Structural functionalism assumes that society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability and that each part has a function that contributes to the overall harmony and equilibrium of the system. Structural functionalism has been criticized for being conservative, deterministic, and simplistic, as it ignores the conflicts, changes, and diversity of society789